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Kirchner's Map of the ConfederacyTM

1863

depicts the Confederate States of America during the War Between the States - Civil War.  Confederate Map created by George B. Kirchner in the style of a C.S.A. cartographer-artist living in 1863. Confederate Map is historically accurate and hand-drawn.  The CSA Map is so reliable that one could consider this to be "The Lost Map of the Confederacy™.  It is the Historic First Definitive Map of the Confederate States of America.

"Confederate Map"

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CSA Map Index

SUMMARY

OBJECTIVES

FEATURES

FLAGS

MOTTO

FLORA

LEADERS

SEALS

STATUE

SCENE

CANALS

SEAPORTS

RAILROADS

FORTS

ROADS

PRICES

HYPERLINKED INDEX

 


Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy

DESCRIPTIVE SUMMARY

All of the lines, dots, and lettering on the Map of the Confederacy have been hand drawn by the artist, George B. Kirchner. He worked on the map for over fourteen years and spent more time and labor in the documentation than in the actual drawing of the map. 

The hand-coloring on Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™ is much more detailed than the hand-coloring on nineteenth century prints.  The antique prints were mass produced by professional and semi-professional hand-colorers and little detail was included in their coloring.

Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™ was hand colored with extreme detail as if it were to be a "Presentation Map" to be given to the Congress of the Confederate States of America by the cartographer-artist. The large/imperial size, "Confederate Edition" has the Confederate seal on the bottom right side prior to the signature of Kirchner.

The Confederate States of America is shown as it existed in 1863, or as it would have existed without interference by the Union military. The definitions of the states and territories are illustrated in accordance with the acts of the Congress of the Confederate States of America in effect for the year 1863.

The panhandle of modern Oklahoma was never a part of Indian Territory. Years before the War Between the States, that land was voluntarily ceded by the State of Texas.  The ownership of that property was not an issue in 1863 and was never brought before the Confederate Congress.  At various times, the area was called "Ceded Land" and "No Man's Land."  Many antique maps erroneously show the panhandle to be a part of Indian Territory.  The Confederate legislature probably would not have considered the Ceded Land to be Confederate territory because it was never a part of Indian Territory.  Indian Territory was claimed by the Confederacy.  For these reasons the "Ceded Land" land is not included as a part of the Confederate States of America on Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™.

Arizona Territory extended from Texas to California and included the southern portions below parallel 34 of present-day New Mexico and Arizona.

       

Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™ is not a military map. It is simply an historical map of a short-lived country that had never been properly delineated.

The historical documentation and art work took thousands of hours.   The backup documentation fills numerous three ring binders and takes up over seven feet of shelf space. Kirchner searched scores of books and documents for information for the map. Original antique maps were helpful, but they are not accurate enough to be used exclusively for this map.

Kirchner states that the support, assistance and patience of his wife, Judy, was invaluable in the completion of the map. His daughter, Jennifer, was very encouraging and helpful over the many years the map was under construction.

The assistance and kindness of his family, friends, state libraries and archives, local libraries and archives, universities, chambers of commerce, cities, towns, museums, historical parks, historical buildings, historical sites, historical societies, government agencies, and individuals were very helpful in the completion of this map with a very high degree of accuracy. 

Kirchner checked and verified every town, railroad, seal, canal, and fort, and geographical features on the map.

There is enough material to write a large book with more details regarding the geographical makeup of the Confederacy.

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OBJECTIVES

Kirchner's objectives were to create a map that would be attractive, extremely accurate, and suitable for comprehensive research use. He determined that a cartographer/artist living in the C.S.A. would like to have created a map like The Lost Map of the Confederacy™ to be admired by 1863 Europeans because the C.S.A. was anxious to be recognized as an independent country by the European nations.  Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™ has accomplished these objectives with the following features:

  • Emphasizes the vast size of the Confederacy and shows all of the Confederate states and Arizona and Indian Territory.
  • Shows that the Confederate States of America extended almost to the Pacific coast.
  • Stresses the importance of each State in the Confederacy.
  • Proclaims that George Washington was one inspiration for the South's struggle for Independence.
  • Illustrates the extensive Confederate railway system.
  • Shows the name and route of every major railroad in the Confederacy in 1863, and show the routes of proposed railroads.
  • Displays scenes of the C.S.A.'s agriculture and industrial base.
  • Lists the names of the seaports in the Confederacy to attract commercial ventures.
  • Illustrates the excellent river systems and canals in the Confederate States of America.
  • Shows the forts in the Confederacy.
  • Depicts the National, State and Territory capitals in the C.S.A.
  • Illustrates the significant cities and towns in the Confederate States of America.
  • Shows the mountains, hills, and swamps in the Confederacy.
  • Illustrates small drawings of the beautiful Confederate cities and the fine government buildings.
  • Depicts the churches in this religious country.
  • Features some prominent leaders of the Confederate States of America.
  • Illustrates the distinct geographic features of the South, from mountains to palms and Spanish moss.
  • Emphasizes the most important agricultural crops.

                        

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FEATURES

Virtually every part of the Lost Map of the Confederacy has a meaning.

All of the map, letters, terrain, art work, etc., were hand drawn, primarily using the smallest technical ink pen available, a 6x0. The details are so fine that when the black shading is heavy, there are approximately 10 to 15,000 dots per square inch, all hand-drawn.

Kirchner used a proprietary hand coloring method to ensure that the printed maps retain the details of the dots, lettering, and lines while retaining the look of a highly detailed hand colored print. 

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FLAG ILLUSTRATIONS

The Confederate National Flag was also called the "Stars and Bars," and it is on the right side of the C.S.A. shield that is in the top center the large banner, "The Confederate States of America."  This was the official flag of the Confederate States of America until May 1, 1863, when the Battle Flag was included in the National Flag.

The Confederate Battle Flag is shown on the left side of the C.S.A. shield, and it was used as a battle flag throughout the War Between the States.

 

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SHIELD AND MOTTO OVER THE FLAGS

Kirchner based the shield on the National Flag of the Confederacy and he created in the style of the 1860's.

The Latin motto, "Deo Vindice" means "God as our Defender," and it was prescribed by the Confederate Congress to be on the "Great Seal of the Confederacy".  (The Great Seal is different from the Shield that Kirchner created for this map.  The Great Seal is used on the left side of "Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy" along with the State Seals.)

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FLORA AT THE TOP OF THE MAP

The illustrations at the top of the map are various important crops in the Confederacy… cotton, tobacco, rice, corn, wheat and sugar cane.

Notice the open cotton bolls on the same plant that has buds and flowers.  This does occur and is not just artistic license.

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ILLUSTRATIONS OF PROMINENT CONFEDERATES

Four prominent Confederate gentlemen are shown on the map, one in each corner.

The President of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis (1808-89), was born in Kentucky and attended the U.S. Military Academy.   He was a U.S. Congressman and Senator from Mississippi, the U.S. Secretary of War, and was wounded in the Mexican War.  He resided in Mississippi when the South declared its independence.  He became provisional president of the C.S.A. on February 18, 1861, and president of the C.S.A. on February 22, 1862, for a six year term.  He and his family resided in the Confederate White House in Richmond in 1863.  He lived at Beauvoir in Biloxi, Mississippi, from 1878 until his death in 1889.

General Robert E. Lee (1807-70), from Virginia, was loved and respected by almost all of the citizens of the Confederacy and had been victorious at First Manassas, Second Manassas and Chancellorsville.  His tactics were not understood by conventional military leaders until the 20th Century.  His father was the Revolutionary War General Henry "Lighthorse Harry" Lee.  He graduated from West Point, fought in the Mexican War, was Supt. of the U.S. Military Academy, and was a cavalry officer in the U.S. army until the War Between the States.  After the war, he became president of Washington College that later became Washington and Lee University.

General P.G.T. Beauregard (1818-93) was born near New Orleans, attended the U.S. Military Academy, and served in the Mexican War from 1846-48.  He was the hero of Ft. Sumter and First Manassas and was considered by the European and Confederate press to be the dashing young hero of the new country. He was at Shiloh and Drury's Bluff.  General Beauregard represented the western part of the Confederacy.  After the war, he became president of the New Orleans, Jackson and Mississippi Railroad and Adjutant General of the State of Louisiana.

Virginia General Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (1824-63) was a very dedicated Christian gentleman who was esteemed and cherished by all.   He was educated at the U.S. Military Academy, served in the Mexican War and was an instructor at Virginia Military Academy.  He earned the nickname "Stonewall" at First Manassas.  Jackson used outstanding tactical maneuvers against superior forces and was involved in the Shenandoah Valley, Second Manassas, Antietam and Fredericksburg.  He assisted in the defeat of Union Gen. McClellan and Gen. Pope.  In May of 1863, shortly after the time of this map (Spring of 1863), Jackson's own men accidentally killed him at the Battle of Chancellorsville.

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SEALS OF THE CONFEDERACY

The Confederate Seal and the seals of the thirteen Confederate States are shown on the left and right sides of the map. A Confederate cartographer would have been sensitive not to favor one state over the other. Therefore, the left-to-right and top-to-bottom alphabetical sequence was chosen. The Confederate Seal is shown first, followed by the Confederate States in the order that they seceded from the Union.

The interior parts of the seals are drawn as the Confederate originals looked in 1863.  For artistic reasons, the writing on the outer portions of some seals have been modified on Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™.

The colors shown on most of the seals on the Map are artistic renditions. The Texas State Seal had colors that were described by the Texas Legislature and that color scheme has been followed on the seal.

Each seal has been verified to be certain that it was the authentic Confederate State Seal. The Confederate Kentucky seal is completely different from the Union Kentucky Seal.

There were no readily available drawings or photographs of the Tennessee Confederate State Seal. The Confederate Tennessee State Seal is based on drawings made by Kirchner from the embossed seal actually used on Tennessee Confederate governor's papers. 

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EQUESTRIAN STATUE OF GEORGE WASHINGTON

The beautiful 1858 equestrian statue of George Washington is featured in the bottom center of the map. This statue was chosen by the Confederate Government to be in the center of the Great Seal of the Confederacy, and was on the Confederate magazine, "The Southern Illustrated News."   "Harper's Weekly" was the Union version of "The Southern Illustrated News".  The monument was designed by sculptor Thomas Crawford and the bronze equestrian statue is placed on a pedestal of Virginia granite.

This statue is located to the northeast of the Virginia capitol building in Richmond.  In 1863, the Virginia State Capitol served as the capitol building of the Confederacy.  Every student of American and Confederate history should view this statue as well as the wonderful marble statue of Washington inside the capitol.  President Davis was sworn in as president of the Confederacy under this statue on February 22, 1862.

The pedestrian statues below George Washington are Patrick Henry, George Mason, and Thomas Jefferson.  Other pedestrian statues were not completed until after the war.  That is why a figure is missing on the right-hand side of the statue on Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™.

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SCENE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE MAP

On each side of the statue are various buildings that represent various states in the Confederacy.  Some buildings, such as the churches in Charleston and New Orleans, are prominent, while others illustrate various government and other buildings in the South.   Many churches are shown because religion was such an important factor in the South

A fine harbor, river, bay, ocean, lighthouse, inland steamboat, ocean going steamship, private sailboats, schooners, and a train and tunnel illustrate transportation in the Confederate States of America.

Agriculture is illustrated with a farm scene showing cotton, corn, sugar cane, tobacco, rice and wheat.

The various climates and varied countryside are portrayed.   The coastal areas are illustrated with palm trees, a sandy beach, clay cliffs, and moss laden trees.  Mountains and rolling hills portray the more temperate areas.

The basic scene was inspired by the illustration on the cover of the 1863 Confederate magazine, The Southern Illustrated News, published in Richmond, Virginia.

   

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CONFEDERATE CANALS

There were many canals and navigational aids in the Confederate States of America in 1863 during the time of Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™.  These navigation projects consisted of canals, locks and dams, and slack water navigation.  Slack water navigation is when the river itself had a canal channel cut between dams.

In general, navigation projects are not shown on the Map unless a large portion consisted of canals.  The major Confederate canals are shown on the Map. 

Most canals that were abandoned in 1863 are not shown on Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™ unless the reason that they were abandoned was because of action by the Union Military. If a major canal had been recently (from the year 1863) abandoned, it was included on the map because a cartographer of that time would have included it as a reference point. 

Some of the more important canals in the Confederate States of America are described below.

The only significant canal in Georgia during 1863 was the Savannah and Ogeechee Canal which was completed before 1830.

Louisiana had many, many miles of canals in 1863.  The most important canal was the Barataria & Lafourche Canal Company which was also known as Barataria Navigation, Grand Caillou Canal, and Company Canal. It utilized manmade canals and natural lakes, bayous, and rivers, some of which had been improved for navigation. The section of the canal across the river from New Orleans that went from the Mississippi River levee area to Bayou Segnette, was built prior to 1794. Today, the Intracoastal Waterway utilizes a significant portion of the old Barataria and Lafourche Canal.

In North Carolina, the Albemarle & Chesapeake Canal opened in 1859 as a competitor of the Dismal Swamp Canal. The A&C Canal is now a part of the Intracoastal Waterway system.

The Dismal Swamp Canal went from Joyce's Creek (Pasquotank River) in North Carolina, 22 miles to Deep Creek (Elizabeth River) in Virginia. It was discussed by commissioners from Virginia and North Carolina in 1786, incorporated in 1790, partially opened in 1805, and officially completed in 1812.

The Santee Canal in South Carolina was the first major canal in the United States and went from the Cooper River to the Santee River. The 22 mile long canal was built between 1793 and 1800 to link Charleston with the Santee River system. Although not used in 1863, the Santee Canal physically existed in 1863 and was a significant landmark in South Carolina. For these reasons it is shown on Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy.

The Alexandria Canal in Virginia was completed in 1843. It went from Alexandria north for seven miles along the Virginia side of the Potomac River.

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CONFEDERATE SEAPORTS

The major seaports linking the Confederacy with other coastal areas are listed in the Seaport Key at the top of Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™ below the oceangoing steamer. Many of the cities are still important seaports.

It was very easy to decide that cities such as Norfolk, Savannah, Charleston, and Pensacola would have been considered seaports in 1863. For some towns, the decision was extremely difficult to make and judgment calls had to be made.  Some criteria that Kirchner used to determine if a town were a seaport for Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™ were: 

  • The town or city had to have engaged in coastal trade.
  • Kirchner wanted to be generous but accurate in considering a city or town to have been a seaport in 1863. A Southern cartographer in 1863 would have drawn a map of the Confederacy in that manner because he would have wanted to encourage European trade in the South.
  • If the reason that a southern port was not still an "active" seaport in 1863 was because of action by the Union military, then it was considered to have been a seaport.
  • The population of the location was not a significant factor in considering a place to be a seaport.
  • The depth of the water was not a major factor if the point engaged in coastal trade.
  • The location had to have been a distinct point on the map. For example, Milneburg, on Lake Pontchartrain, served as a shipping point for New Orleans. Research shows that it was considered simply as a "Lakeport Dock" for the port of New Orleans with a short train ride linking the dock. Therefore, it is not shown on the map.
  • The town or city did not have to be on salt water if it engaged in coastal trade. However, if it were located on fresh water, Kirchner made the activity criteria somewhat more severe than a town that was on a bay or sound. The primary New Orleans oceangoing traffic was on the Mississippi River. New Orleans had numerous daily ocean going ships departing with connections to many parts of the world. In addition, there was access to salt water via Lake Pontchartrain. Therefore, New Orleans was considered be a seaport.
  • If a town were in an isolated location with no nearby seaports, Kirchner was more generous in considering that town to be a seaport. For example, Miami was a very shallow port and had a population of less than 100 people. However, there was an occasional ship that anchored to pick up railroad ties for the northeastern United States before the War Between the States. There was a mail boat that went to Key West and there was limited ocean contact with the Bahamas. Since there was no other seaport nearby, Miami was considered to be a seaport.
  • Some towns used lighters from deep-water harbors such as Ship Island. Ship Island was not a town, but it was a well-known harbor for coastal Mississippi. Lighter harbors were not generally considered to be seaports.  The towns, such as Biloxi, are listed as the seaports.
  • There are some very obscure towns that could have been considered seaports under a more liberal interpretation. For those, space at the top of the map would be a limiting factor. Some examples are Newport, Florida; Moss Point, Mississippi; and Kinnakeet, Virginia. Oceangoing vessels stopped for cargo at many landings along the Mississippi River and other points. Schooners were able to travel in shallow waters and would visit little-known points. Those points are not considered seaports on Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™.
  • Space limitations in the Seaport Key and on Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™ were factors.

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CONFEDERATE RAILROADS

All of the major Confederate railroad companies are listed in the Railroad Key at the top of the Map. The South's rail system was very important to its agricultural base. Many additional miles of track were under construction, and the Confederate Congress had considered a railroad link to the Pacific Ocean using a southern route going through El Paso.

The railroads are shown as they were in 1863, or as they would have been without interference by the Union military.  If the iron rails were removed to build or replace track destroyed by the Union forces, that track was considered to be in existence.  There was virtually no new track built during the war in the South.  The exception is the track linking Greensboro with Virginia and Florida with Georgia.  That railroad track was proposed at the time of this map, but was not completed.  It is shown as proposed Railroads.

Kirchner states that determining which railroad trackage was actually in existence was the most difficult research project associated with this map.  The binders for the railroad information used to document the map takes up three feet of shelf space.

The trains in 1863 averaged about fourteen miles per hour. That included stops for passengers, mail, water, fuel, and waiting for other trains to clear the rail. On good track, the trains were capable of speeds from forty to sixty miles per hour. That was a dramatic improvement over the stages that averaged about four miles per hour.  Kirchner remembers riding the slow, daily trains of the 1940's in Florida and Alabama that only averaged twenty to thirty miles per hour. The train stopped at almost every settlement that it went through. There was no air conditioning on the daily trains and cinders in the eyes and dirt on the clothes were normal for the 1940's as well as the 1860's. In the 1860's there were occasional express trains that averaged close to twenty-five miles per hour. In the 1950's, an L&N RR express train like the Hummingbird averaged 60 MPH.

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CONFEDERATE FORTS

All of the major Confederate forts are shown on the Map as well as most of the minor ones. Criteria that Kirchner used in determining if the fort should be on the Lost Map of the Confederacy™ were: 

  • If the fort(s) were in existence at the start of the war and were occupied by C.S.A. troops, then it is shown as a fort.

  • If the fort(s) were in existence at the start of the war but was occupied by Union troops, then it was shown as a fort. The reason is that Confederates in 1863 would simply have considered the Union troops to be foreign troops illegally occupying Confederate territory.

  • If the fort were a significant new fort constructed by Confederates during the war prior to the time of this map, it is shown as a fort.

  • If the fort were a new fort constructed by Union forces during the war, it is not shown on the Map as a fort. The cartographer in 1863 would have considered the fort to be unlawful.

  • Abandoned forts, minor forts and encampments built by both forces are not included on Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™.

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CONFEDERATE COMMON ROADS

In the nineteenth century, the roads used by foot, horses, wagons and stages were called "common roads." In the 1850's and 1860's, many maps were drawn that did not show the common roads. Common roads are not shown on the Lost Map of the Confederacybecause of limited space and the confusion that they would add to the Map.

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Kirchner's Map of the Confederacy™ is printed in three sizes, to accommodate the needs of all that are interested in Confederate history.  The editions are as follows:

 


EXTRA LARGE Signed Artist Proof "Confederate Map" Print:   Paper size is 25" x 31-1/2", image is 22" x 28-1/4". This first "Confederate Edition Artist Proof" has the Confederate Seal on the bottom and is limited to 63 copies and is signed by George B. Kirchner.  The reason for selecting 63 is that is the last two digits of the year of the print, 1863.   This print is the same size as the original map that Kirchner drew.  This Extra Large size is called "Imperial" in the print business and there may be later different editions of the Imperial size print.

 

EXTRA LARGE Signed and Numbered "Confederate Map" Print:  Paper size is 25" x 31-1/2", image is 22" x 28-1/4". This first "Signed and Numbered Confederate Edition" has the Confederate Seal on the bottom and is limited to 5,000 copies hand-signed and numbered by George B. Kirchner. This print is the same size as the original map that Kirchner drew. This Extra Large size is called "Imperial" in the print business and there may be later different editions of the Imperial size print........$79

  

LARGE Signed Only "Confederate Map" Print:  Paper size is 17" x 21-1/2", the image is 15" x 19-1/2".  The Large "Signed Only" print is an open edition hand signed by George B. Kirchner.  The image is the same as the Extra Large print, but it is a smaller size......$39

 

 

  

MEDIUM "Confederate Map" Print:  Paper size is 11" x 14", image is 9-1/2' x 12-1/2"). The Medium size print is an attractive unsigned print.    The image is the same as the Extra Large print, but much smaller.   Some folks may need a magnifying glass to reveal the small details......$12

  

 

 

PAPER:   All of the above prints are printed by offset lithography with fade resistant inks on acid free, 80 pound cover stock paper.  The detailed hand drawing with pen and ink and a unique hand coloring method give the look and details of an antique print that has been hand colored.  The fine prepress work ensured the prints would capture the details of the original.

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Kirchner Prints was established in 1976

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